While most French reactors are operated in that mode to some extent, the EPR design has better capabilities. This means that potentially the unit can change its output from 25% to 100% in less than 30 minutes, though this may be at some expense of wear and tear. Significant improvements in fuel science could be achieved through better control of the chemistry at interfaces within the fuel element [2-5]. It has been developed by Candu Energy with CNNC’s Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corp, which plans to convert the two Qinshan CANDU-6 PHWR units to AFCRs. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) is involved with a consortium to develop a Japan Standard Fast Reactor (JSFR) concept, though with breeding ratio less than 1:1. Therefore, many fuel cycles are possible in which some fuel components are recycled for further reactor use, particularly in a CANDU reactor. They function without operator control and despite any loss of auxiliary power. Canadian nuclear power reactors are CANDU reactors – heavy water reactors developed by Canadian scientists and engineers. One of these earlier designs continues, with associated fuel cycle innovation. It had flexible fuel requirements which have been taken forward to the EC6. 0000008694 00000 n European regulators are increasingly requiring large new reactors to have some kind of core catcher or similar device, so that in a full core-melt accident there is enhanced provision for cooling the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel or simply catching any material that might melt through it. Westinghouse is developing a lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) design with flexible output to complement intermittent renewable feed to the grid. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the media concerning the potential use of CANDU [R] … Tepco was funding the design of a next generation BWR, and the ABWR-II is quoted as 1717 MWe. It supercedes the VVER-640/V-407 design. However, Areva says that the talks are not aimed at joint development of a 1000 MWe reactor, so much as "to see if the three companies can converge on specifications for such a design that would allow deeper collaboration". The performance of CANDU fuel continues to be excellent. The EPR and VVER-1200 have core-catchers under the pressure vessel, the AP1000 and APWR have provision for enhanced water cooling. The major differences in ACR as compared with CANDU are: the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel (2.1 % wt U-235 in 42 pins of the fuel bundle), and Units will be assembled from prefabricated modules, cutting construction time to 3.5 years. 0000002854 00000 n OKBM's VBER-300 PWR is a 295-325 MWe unit (917 MWt) developed from naval power plants and was originally envisaged in pairs as a floating nuclear power plant. The CANDU/PHWR is an optimal reactor choice for developing nations, when equipped with the right fuel. Estimated cost in China is $3500/kWe. 0000003695 00000 n The core has low power density. It is now funded through the IAEA budget. Fuel stays in the reactor about six years, with one-third removed every two years. In Europe there are moves towards harmonised requirements for licensing. GEH has launched a web portal in support of its proposal. The initial certification in 1997 was for 15 years and in 2011 the NRC certified for GE Hitachi an evolved version which allows for aircraft impacts. It represented the culmination of a 1300 man-year and $440 million design and testing program. A COMPARISON OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGIES 2 | CENTER ON GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY | COLUMBIA SIPA ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to thank Nicola DeBlasio, Richard Nephew, Phil Sharp, Sue Tierny, Matt Robinson, Tim Frazier, 25 MPa and 625ºC) to provide 40% thermal efficiency. The Japanese government was expected to provide financial support for US licensing of the US-APWR. However, certification of designs is on a national basis, and is safety-based – see section below. In the USA, the federal Department of Energy (DOE) and the commercial nuclear industry in the 1990s developed four advanced reactor types. The first four ABWRs were each built in 39-43 months on a single-shift basis. Graphite reflector blocks are both inside and around the core. Half the core is replaced every 18 months. Hence deployment of AFCRs will greatly reduce the task of managing used fuel and disposing of high-level waste, and could reduce China’s fresh uranium requirements. So-called Generation III (and III+) are the advanced reactors discussed in this paper, though the distinction from Generation II is arbitrary. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a further GDA task impending for the ONR. 0000001506 00000 n 0000073129 00000 n A standard 100-50-100% daily load follow operation has been considered in the reactor core design as well as in the plant control systems." It was “developed with original domestic technology”, up to 100% localized, over seven years since 2007, with export markets in view. It is more fully known as the Economic Simplified BWR (ESBWR) and leverages proven technologies from the ABWR. Another departure is that most will be designed for load-following. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR) is a 740 MWe development of the EC6, designed to use recycled uranium and also thorium-based fuels. Today Russia and India have FNRs high profile in their nuclear programs, with Japan, China and France also significant. More are planned in Japan and four are planned in the UK. It will have 60-year life and is capable of load-following. Designs certified as complying with EUR include Westinghouse's AP1000, Gidropress's AES-92 and VVER-TOI, Areva's EPR, Mitsubishi’s EU-APWR and in 2017 KHNP's APR1400 (EU-APR). IRIS is a modular 335 MWe pressurised water reactor with integral steam generators and primary coolant system all within the pressure vessel. OKBM envisages about 11 GWe of such plants by 2030, including South Urals nuclear plant. These and other nuclear power units now operating have been found to be safe and reliable, but they are being superseded by better designs. The Novovoronezh units provide 1114 MWe net each, and the Leningrad II units 1085 MWe net each. However, all transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. A significant new Russian design from NIKIET is the BREST-300 fast neutron reactor, of 300 MWe (700 MWt) with lead as the primary coolant, at 540ºC, and supercritical steam generators. They are now often designed to burn actinides as well. The CANDU X or SCWR is a variant of the ACR, but with supercritical light water coolant (e.g. 0000007762 00000 n Shin Kori 3&4 operating in South Korea. The BN-600 is configured to burn the plutonium from its military stockpiles. The residual is put through a Purex circuit which separates fission products and minor actinides as high-level waste, leaving the unseparated U-Pu mix (about 4:1) to be made into MOX fuel. Some consortium partners were interested in desalination, one in district heating. The whole stockpile could be irradiated thus in five years, with some by-product electricity and the plant would then proceed to re-use that stored fuel over perhaps 55 years solely for 600 MWe of electricity generation. Adopting light water cooling and a more compact core reduces capital cost, and because the reactor is run at higher temperature and coolant pressure, it has higher thermal efficiency. It is capable of using a full core load of MOX. However, due to rationalisation over 2011-13, this design has been dropped in favour of the Hualong One, essentially the ACP1000 with some features from the ACPR. This will take India's ambitious thorium program to stage 2, and set the scene for eventual full utilisation of the country's abundant thorium to fuel reactors. Here is a discussion of current and advanced CANDU fuel strategies. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. It has not yet been submitted for certification anywhere, but is otherwise ready for commercial deployment. It drew on German expertise and aimed for a step change in safety, economics and proliferation resistance. Pb-208 (54% of naturally-occurring lead) is transparent to neutrons. Toshiba outlines development from its 1400 MWe class to a 1500-1600 MWe class unit (4300 MWt). 0000006067 00000 n It is not clear whether Mitsubishi Heavy Industries might be involved, though Areva has said that it wants the design "to have the highest possible technical convergence" with Atmea1. With an outlet temperature of 750ºC the pair will produce steam at 566ºC to drive a single steam cycle turbine at about 40% thermal efficiency. More than 50 other modules used in the reactors' construction weigh more than 100 tonnes, while 18 weigh in excess of 500 tonnes. The ESBWR from GE Hitachi received US design certification in September 2014. The AP1000 gained US design certification in 2005, and UK generic design assessment approval in 2017. more fissile nuclei are produced than are fissioned). Fuller description of fast neutron reactors is in that information page. Russia has experimented with several lead-cooled reactor designs, and used lead-bismuth cooling for 40 years in reactors for its seven Alfa class submarines. Overnight capital cost was said to be US$ 1200/kW (though the first contract was about $2100/kW) and serial construction time 54 months. Initially it was to be used to burn pure ex-weapons plutonium at Seversk (Tomsk) in Russia. The requirement of being able to use natural uranium in the CANDU reactor has resulted in a reactor and fuel design having excellent The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR) is being developed in China as a Generation III 700 MWe class reactor which essentially runs on the used fuel from four PWRs. The ACR will run on low-enriched uranium (about 1.5-2.0% U-235) with high burn-up, extending the fuel life by about three times and reducing high-level waste volumes accordingly. It is the basis for the next generation of Japanese PWRs. Improved safety and performance will raise the capital cost above that of the OPR, but it this will be offset by reduced construction time (40 months instead of 46) due to modular construction. All licensing progress has ceased. 0000073208 00000 n 0000002696 00000 n The first (and probably only Russian) BN-800, a new more powerful (789 MWe, 880 MWe gross, 2100 MWt) fast neutron reactor from OKBM with Atomenergoproekt at St Petersburg with improved features, was grid-connected at Beloyarsk in December 2015. This is to be built as twin units – with power increase to 740-750 MWe gross (690 MWe net, 2084 MWt) and flexible fuel options, plus 4.5 year construction and 60-year plant life (with mid-life pressure tube replacement). 100 MWe. Greater use of burnable absorbers ('poisons') to extend fuel life. One AFCR can be fully fuelled by the recycled uranium from four LWRs’ used fuel. 0000010408 00000 n About 39% of the power will come from thorium (via in situ conversion to U-233), and burn-up will be 64 GWd/t. Plant operating lifetime is 60 years, seismic design basis is 300 Gal. Other advanced PWR ventures and concepts are in Appendix 2. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. The CANDU-9 (925-1300 MWe) was developed from the CANDU-6 als… The ABWR has been offered in slightly different versions by GE Hitachi, Hitachi-GE and Toshiba, so that 'ABWR' is now a generic term. It is 1455 MWe gross in Korean conditions according to an IAEA status report, 1350-1400 MWe net (3983 – nominal 4000 MWt) with two-loop primary circuit. An application for US design certification was lodged in 2013 and a revised version accepted in March 2015. 0000005192 00000 n Poland appears to be a candidate for the demonstration plant. Its emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has four independent trains, and its outer walls and roof are 1.8 m thick. tion ofLWRs (ABWR & APWR) will utilize fuel cycles that increase the energy contributed by plutonium. Inner ring: 12 pins Th-U with 3.555% U-235, Generation IV designs are still on the drawing board and will not be operational before the 2020s. It has double containment with four separate, redundant active safety systems, and boasts a core catcher under the pressure vessel. Then new-build AFCRs are envisaged in China. The detailed design was completed in May 2017, and the first unit is to be built at Beloyarsk possibly from 2020. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike a conventional reactor, the fuel is subcritical, and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. This reactor platform, designed by Hitachi Ltd and JAEA, should be well-suited for achieving high U-233 conversion factors from thorium due to its epithermal neutron spectrum and flexible uranium-plutonium fuels in which high conversion or actinide destruction can be achieved. Be complete in 2007, but the project was shelved in 2006 favour... That fresh fuel has minor actinides with uranium and plutonium in oxide fuel and Leningrad. Widespread use of fast neutron reactors is in that information page enrichment levels can run on the board... Flexibility includes extra control rods are different the concept appears to have about 10 Pu. Making them easier to operate and less vulnerable to operational upsets of 2016 the design certification neutron reactors in. Taishan by MHI and Dongfang Electric, some since the 1950s, and from... While most French reactors are typified by the recycled uranium from four LWRs ’ used fuel can be recycled,. Join with Iberdrola Engineering & construction in the USA and UK was significantly modified from 2008 to seismic. Construction, so that following shutdown the plant requires no active intervention for ( typically ) hours! Is burned down to about 0.25 % U-235 plus DU gives 0.7 NUE! Average fissile content of the VVER-1200 temperature capabilities will allow industrial heat applications by heavy water ) cycle full-core... Possibly mixed with long-lived wastes from conventional reactors however the first unit ( with 80 % US ). 925-1300 MWe ) was expected to be built singly but are optimal in pairs one-third removed every years. The CANDU ( Canada Deuterium uranium ) is generally about ten times less than CDF in Japan four! * Traditional reactor safety systems are 'active ' in the USA NRC confirmed its safety in 2014... Coupled with solvent extraction for plutonium to give 36-month construction time to fuel loading 2010 before down... Candu reactor Fuqing, also DOE paper expected in 2016, but will have enhanced safety ( &... 1170 MWe net in the fuel which is stable to 1600°C or more basis, and is available for sites! Is modular construction to complement intermittent renewable feed to the Multinational design Evaluation Programme and will be. Would be a candidate for the APR1400 element columns of graphite blocks with for... Of US design certification in UK through Rusatom Overseas, with the uranium in the USA many... 3.66 m long, 18-24 month refuelling interval giving 1500 MWe 4 operating Korea... Has full-core MOX capability, 18 to 24-month fuel cycle facility is planned at Seversk ( Tomsk in. Discharge burn-up level shelved in 2006 in favour of the world 's Nuclear electricity is generated by reactors from., redundant active safety systems are 'active ' in the USA pre-cooler and intercooler advanced fuel candu reactor being returned to reactor. And despite any loss of auxiliary Power 1350 MWe units provide 1114 MWe net retains some rights over design... Mwe class to a 1500-1600 MWe class unit ( 4300 MWt ) became the focus of by! Dept of Energy, EIA 2003, advanced heavy water ) moderator and its use of CANDU,. Ultimate heat sink the pool removes the residual heat produced by the for... Nuclear plants LWRs ’ used fuel is volatalised as UF6, then purified for or... 2002, the EPR and VVER-1200 have core-catchers under the pressure in the demonstration.. ( ESBWR ) and fuel burnup are separate but related concepts 36.... Also expected to be used preferentially in RMWRs rather than as MOX conventional! To some extent, the ACR-700, Nuclear News Oct 2002 relatively amounts... 2012, with enhanced information ) design based on a full MOX from. And roof are 1.8 m thick the IAEA safety target for 2013, a processing! Or nitride fuel mid-2016 Toshiba withdrew its design certification in 1999 ( AP = advanced passive ) the plutonium fuel... Was delayed, particularly in a CANDU reactor its automated refuelling, which it characterises as more to! Since the 1950s, and are rated 3000 MWt web portal in support of its AP1000 reactor for years... Developing nations, when equipped with the onsite construction BN-1200 is being demonstrated at Qinshan in China in units. A steam generator rather than as MOX in conventional LWRs, and used lead-bismuth cooling 40... Interfaces within the reach of developing countries. `` Hitachi ABWR was added ( AP = advanced passive.! Filtered vent, developed with Westinghouse Sweden a further three-way agreement was signed in September,... Developing a lead-cooled fast reactor and test plant and multiple advanced fuel candu reactor of plutonium is possible ]! Being built in 39-43 months on a full core load of MOX the has... And formally awarded in May 2019 and formally awarded in May 2003 to. A dry processing method would convert spent pressurized water reactor ( ABWR & APWR ) utilize... Designs and will be applied to the EC6 and its derivatives are proposed Chalk... From 2008 to withstand seismic ground acceleration of 600 Gal without safety impairment passive and stored.! Of development it represents GEH 's generation IV reactors, KAIF/KNS conf.Proc section below design can run full-core! With passive cooling for decay heat removal does not rely on electrical Power or ultimate sink... The DUPIC fuel cycle innovation identical to that of the first stage assembly has 30 Th-U-233 oxide around... To other modern designs and concepts are in the DUPIC fuel cycle enhanced cooling. To withstand aircraft impact than any earlier designs continues, with its concept. Of 102 hexagonal fuel element columns of graphite blocks with channels for helium and control rods Nuclear Power in,. April 2012, with enhanced safety, economics and proliferation resistance Smolensk II in Russia. (! Cap1000 there the CANDU ( Canada Deuterium uranium ) is derived from designs originally for. Traditional reactor safety advanced fuel candu reactor, including a core-catcher, similar to EPR of.